Lawmen & Outlaws
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The Oklahoma Leader
Guthrie, Logan County, Oklahoma
Submitted by: Bob Chada
Transcribed by: Mollie Stehno


The Oklahoma Leader
January 21, 1914

Muskogee, Okla. Jan. 13-Two of the men who robbed the Bank of Terlton yesterday, and who killed Deputy Sheriff Moore in a running fight, were captures today and are in jail at Pawnee. The third member of the gang escaped. Most of the three thousand dollars taken from the bank has been recovered. After the killing of Deputy Sheriff Moore, the posse, of which he was a member caught up with the bandits in a stubble field and the second running fight followed in which one of the bandits was seriously wounded and his companion, seeing this, surrendered.
The robbery of the Terlton bank took place shortly after 2 o'clock Tuesday afternoon. Terlton is a small town 30 miles northwest of Tulsa in Pawnee County.
The two bank robberies yesterday swell the number to 15 within the past 30 days.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 21, 1914

Muskogee, Okla. Jan. 16-That Henry Starr, one time bandit and bank robber in Indian Territory and old Oklahoma, is back at his old trick and the head of the "Pete" gang that has been operating in the state for the past six months, is the opinion of United States Marshal B. A. Enloe, Jr. and other local officers.
Mr. Enloe, who recently made a trip to the northern part of the state, says that he has authentic information that Starr is at the head of at least two gangs of bank looters, and that his rendezvous is in the Osage hills. As the three recent robberies were almost simultaneous they were unquestionable directed by one man. Starr has with him, according to the information received here, one Jinks Starling, better known as "Four Eyes," who is said to be an expert in blowing safes and handling fuse, dynamite and "soup."
The organization is believed, divided into three separate gangs Tuesday, one robbing the bank at Terlton, the other at Vera and the third at Garber. Under the head of a good leader, the robberies are usually pulled off at or about the same time for the purpose of confusing the officers. After a bank is blown all interest centers in that direction, and it is easier to pull off another "job' in some other part of the country.
That James Spees and William Inhoff were implicated in the Terlton robbery is pretty well established. Walter Spees, however, was in the United States marshal's office in Muskogee Tuesday afternoon at the very hour the Terlton bank was robbed. He was here until 4 o'clock and then went to Pawnee that night. He went to the former prosecuting attorney of Pawnee County and told him that the understood a warrant had been issued for him and he wanted to surrender. The lawyer directed him to the sheriff to whom he surrendered. He was placed in the county jail on a charge of robbing the Terlton bank.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 21, 1914

Is there an organized gang of bank robbers vigorously operating with headquarters in this part of the state?
That is the belief of Sheriff Sherwood of this city and Sheriff Hume of Enid
Both officers have information that leads to that belief.
The rendezvous of the gang is thought to be in the wild woodland near the Cushing oil field, the robbers operating from a central point.
E. P. Sayres of Meeker is in Guthrie today. He told a remarkable story of an experience with three men who, he believes, were bank robbers.
"I was riding from Prague, the new oil town, to my farm north of Meeker, when I overtook an automobile alongside the highway," said Sayres.
"The machine was ditched and I got off my horse to examine it. There was a clump of bushes nearby and from this point I heard voices; I stepped that way and came onto the three men. All of them wore masks. The masks were off their faces and were hanging to their necks. I was so surprised that I made a hasty retreat, but they heard me and I was commanded to halt. One of the men shoved a gun in my face and ordered me to put my hands behind me. I did as ordered; one of the men tied my hands together and then tied me to a tree, after gagging me. The men than cranked up and drove away, headed toward Cushing. Several hours later a farmer passing and seeing my horse in the road discovered me and I was released. I am satisfied they are the members of an organized gang of bank robbers."
Mr. Sayres says he had a good look at the three men before they adjusted their masks and his description of one of them corresponds exactly with one of the "stick-up" men who robbed a gambling place at the Royal hotel late last year.
It is the general feeling of officers both here and at Enid that an organized gang of bank robbers is operating with Cushing as the rendezvous.
Sheriff Sherwood has appointed a number of special deputies at different parts of the county where roads enter from other counties and will keep a close watch for strangers.
A phone to the sheriff's office here from Perry last night said that Frank Clark of Cushing, Okla., aged 18 was arrested at Perry Thursday when he called for the automobile belonging to Otis Lewis, one of the two men suspected of robbing the Barber State bank of $2,729 Tuesday. Sheriff Hume of Garfield County has returned from Cushing with Ed Jackson, Lewis and Clark. Formal burglary charges were placed against Jackson and Lewis. The two admit they abandoned the car near Perry about 4:30 Wednesday morning, claiming the car was disabled.
They access they were buying hogs and hay around Perry. The officers found burglar tools, including nitroglycerine, in the car. Clark went from Cushing to Perry while the officers were en route to Cushing for the prisoners. He refuses to tell who sent him. The Perry officers held Clark and Sheriff Hume took him to Enid. None of the stolen money has been recovered. The prisoners were given a preliminary hearing today. Clark said he lived in Oklahoma City several months last year, driving livery automobiles.
Local banks have taken precautions to guard against hold-ups. A local banker said today: "These uncensored movie films help to make bank robbers

The Oklahoma Leader
January 21, 1914

Ira N. Terrill, one of Oklahoma's famous early day characters who was three times committed to prison for life without a trial and who brought suit against President Roosevelt and members of his cabinet for $800,000 damages for false imprisonment, has become an oil witch. Terrill was in the city yesterday and while here took credit for witching in a number of promising oil and gas pools. He claims a prospective gas field in Greer County, ten miles north of Mangum in the extreme southwest end of the state. The first well is in and the second is drilling, and already there is sufficient gas in sight, he says, to supply Mangum and Cordell which towns have granted gas franchises to companies in which Terrill is interested.
Terrill describes his work as "chasing wildcats." He declares he is on the high road to wealth, whereas he was turned out of prison without even carfare home eight years ago.
Terrill was the Payne county member of the First Territorial legislature when he killed George Embry. The shooting took place where the post office now stands. Eventually he became the central figure in one of the most famous murder cases in the annals of federal courts. He was literally "kicked out" of prison on a decision of Judge Walter Sanborn, who held he had been imprisoned without process of law.
Terrill said he was afterwards offered a presidential pardon, but scorned it.
Mr. Terrill was author of the first capital punishment act passed by the first territorial legislature and was the fist man convicted under that act.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 21, 1914

Drumright, Okla., Jan 18-A bandit and his intended victim both lost their lives when two robbers attempted to hold up two freighters in an alleged roadhouse three miles from Drumright Saturday night. In the pistol battle, which followed, George Dale, 21 of Perry, driver of a fright wagon, and John Brandon, one of the hold up men were fatally wounded and Elmer Freeman was shot in the forehead.
Dale died before he could be taken to Drumright, Brandon died Sunday morning in a hospital at Cushing. Freeman was only slightly injured and it is believed the second robber escaped unhurt.
Dale and Freeman, driving two fright wagons from Cushing to Drumright, stopped about 7 o'clock Saturday night at the roadhouse to get something to eat. Brandon, an oil field worker, who was in police court here last week charged with bootlegging, entered with a partner and demanded that the two throw up their hands. Dale replied with a shot and the battle started.
Before Freeman could fire he was hit in the forehead and fell to the floor. A moment later a bullet entered the mouth of Dale and passed out his ear. He fell on top of Freeman. Brandon ran across the road, wounded in the body by a bullet from Dale's gun and the second robber disappeared. Friends of Freeman who went to the place from Drumright after he had telephoned from the roadhouse found Brandon.
Dale lived at Perry and was the son of J. B. Dale, a former Noble county deputy sheriff. Brandon's parents, believed to live in Kansas, arrived in Cushing Sunday afternoon to claim his body.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 21, 1914

Another bank robbery, the last of a score or more in the state within the past three months, occurred Tuesday afternoon near Tulsa, in the oil field country, and this time an officer of the law was killed in the attempt to prevent the escape of the fugitive robbers.
If the state of Oklahoma is ever going to get away from the reputation of being a wild western state, uncivilized and inhabited by criminals, it is time something definite and effective is done to put a stop to these kinds of depredations.
The present legislature should take energetic steps to enact a law that will strike terror into the hearts of the bank breakers.
But bank robberies will not cease, no matter how great the threatened punishment, so longs as the people in general encourage the "profession" by placing them upon pedestals after they have "reformed" by permitting them to deliver public lectures on the craft and by saying to see their past performances in motion picture shows. The rising generation of bandits should be made to realize, right now, that the day of the gunman has passed and that they will be much more appreciated if they contribute to bank deposits rather than take the deposits of others by force.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 28, 1915
Oklahoma City, Okla. Jan 26-"Unless urgent protests are made the bill to kill off pool and billiard halls will be become a law," said Representative Durant today. "The women are fighting hard for it"
The bank robber bill appropriating $15,000 as a reward fund to be paid out in $1,000 installments, still awaits the signature of Governor Williams. The House of Representatives voted unanimously to concur in the senate amendments to the bill, among the provision of the act applicable to various other kinds of felonies in addition to the bank robberies.
The bill was one of the first measures introduced at this session and was intended to be used in ridding the state of a band of bank robbers which was especially active about three weeks ago but which has been very much under cover of late. It is said that Governor Williams does not approve of the bill because he thinks the appropriation is to high, but it is not likely that he will exercise his veto.
The free textbook bill by Speer of Stephens County was advanced to engrossment and final passage by the house in committee of the whole after a brilliant debate.
The house killed the bill by Dunn of Pottawatomie intended to permit the organization of trust companies under the state banking law and alleviate the trouble point out by the supreme court in the Columbian Bank & Trust Co. case.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 28, 1915

Ringling, Okla. Jan 23-Bert Jones and Charles Coker of this vicinity, were taken to the penitentiary yesterday by deputy Sheriff Sim Stotts to serve one year each for forgery. They pleaded guilty this week when arraigned in Walter before District Judge Cham Jones. Both forged checks were drawn on the First National Bank of Ringling, one for $20, the other for #30. The names of Jepp Stalings and J. Roe Sowell were forged.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 23, 1915

Ringling, Okla. Jan.22-Sheriff Biffle of Jefferson county was slightly injured and Undersheriff Frank Drisgill was critically injured during a battle with shotguns and rifles last night between the officers and Charles Evans, an escaped convict from the state penitentiary at McAlester. Evans was shot several times by the officers and lies wounded in the county jail at Waurika. Evans was under 18 years sentence for the murder of Frank Gibson, near Asphaltum, six years ago. Thirty shots were fired during last night's battle.

The Oklahoma Leader
February 4, 1915

Pawnee, Okla. Feb 12-W. A. Inhofe, 18 years old, pleaded guilty here Monday before Judge Linn to having helped rob the First National bank at Terlton, Okla. And was sentenced to served thirty years in the state penitentiary.
Robber Moore, a deputy sheriff of Pawnee County, was killed by one of the Terlton robbers, while Moore was endeavoring to effect their capture, a short distance from Terlton about an hour after the robbery Tuesday, January 12.
James Spees, 18 years old, is in the Pawnee county jail here and is charged with having killed Moore. A charge of robbery has also been preferred against Spees.
Buz Clark, 18 years old, also a prisoner in the Pawnee jail recently admitted his connection with the Terlton bank robbery and accompanied the officers to where the $1,5000 stolen from the bank was concealed. The bank has now recovered all the money secured by the raiders. Clark waived preliminary hearing, and it is said has been promised immunity for having enabled the bank to recover its funds.
Spees has made no confession; nor has Imhofe or Clark made any statement tending to implicate Spees in the robbery or as the one who killed Moore. J. A. McClullom, prosecuting attorney of Pawnee County says that the statements of alleged eyewitnesses were the basis of the murder charge placed against Spees.
Bandits raided the First National bank of Terlton shortly after the bank opened for business on the morning of January 12. The robbers secured more than $1,500. They marched the bank officials beyond the corporate limits. Deputy Sheriff Moore, who followed the robbers from town, was shot and killed; Inhofe was capture by a posse that day! Spees and Clark being arrested the day following.

The Oklahoma Leader
February 11, 1915

Bartlesville, Okla., Feb 4-Charles Johnson and Bill Bunnell, suspected of having been implicated in the robbery of the Avant, Oklahoma State bank last Friday, were arrested and are in jail at Pawhuska. The men were captured at Cedar Vale, Kansas. Both are cowmen and noted ropers.

The Oklahoma Leader
February 18, 1915

Okmulgee, Okla. Feb 15-Sam Johnson, a wealthy Creek Indian, was shot and instantly killed at his home seven miles south of here Friday night. With a family and neighbor, Johnson was in a front room of the home, sitting with his back toward a window when shot. There is no clue to the murderer but Taylor Summer, an Indian, and Normal Lee, a Negro, found in the neighborhood, have been arrested. One of he pair was armed. They are held without bond. Some time ago Johnson stated that he did not expect to die a natural death. He owned fine oil properties and, as far as is known, had no enemies.

The Oklahoma Leader
March 4, 1915

Muskogee, Okla. Feb. 27-Because a stage coach robbery in which bandits wearing white sombrero hats and handkerchiefs tied over their faces and in which they cracked a safe and secured an express package, was shown to the jury trying the case of Jack and Joe Davis, Buck Burtdoff and B. Wirthman, the four members of the alleged Davis gang, who were convicted here recently, S. M. Rutherford; attorney for the men today filed motion in the United States court asking for a new trial.
In addition to the charge of mismanagement of the jury, Rutherford alleged that Judge Campbell, when he cleared the court of spectators on the final night of the trial, denied the defendants a public trail, which it is claimed is a constitutional right.
It is also alleged by Rutherford that certain members of the jury made, both before and ruing the trial, "expressions of belief in the guilt of the defendants," and further that the jury was mismanaged by the bailiff during the hours it was together at the Torson hotel.

The Oklahoma Leader
March 4, 1915

Oklahoma City, Okla. Feb 25-Political gossip that Al Jennings will seek the local mayoralty on the republican ticket is without foundation, according to a statement made by Jennings' brother Frank. It has been rumored that Al Jennings would return to Oklahoma City soon and formally announce his candidacy. Al Jennings is out of the state at present.

The Oklahoma Leader
March 4, 1915

The death in Missouri of Frank James, who though never convicted of crime was reputed to be a member of the famous James gang of outlaws, who were charged years ago with so many desperate acts, raises the question whether the big bank and train robberies of 30 years ago are as common today.
As a whole, crime seems decidedly on the increase. But the big crime acts of a generation ago, which so fired the imagination of the outlaw class, may be too daring for the modern sneak burglar and footpad.
Bank robbery cannot be as profitable as it used to be. Electric and steel protection has made large banks impregnable. Here and there a small country bank might be ripped open. But the returns would not be sufficient for the risk.
A highly explosive state of society pervaded many sections at the time of the James gang were active. Gun toting was general. The guns were not carried for ornament, but for real use. Celerity in pulling them and accuracy in using them was an essential element in a gentleman's education.
These conditions developed very daring and resolute men, quick in decision and rapid in execution. A train robbery was no carefully planned stroke of business, but a sudden lawless impulse. The life of the plains of 30 to 40 years ago developed many a character perfectly capable of these acts at any time he felt the need of cash.
Train robbery probably does not seem attractive to the sneak criminal of today. He is looking for what seems more like a sure thing. Sleeping people in their beds unarmed pedestrians in dark corners of great cities, houses left alone and unlocked tin daylight these are the favorites. They are much safe than a heavy train where express messengers and others are apt to be armed and where the telephone quickly summons bands of officers to search the country.

The Oklahoma Leader
March 25, 1915

Sapulpa, March 23-Death, induced by tuberculosis, may cheat the electric chair or the penitentiary of Kelly Reed, alleged slay of Ella Brown, a 9-year-old Kiefer girl, who was brutally murdered on a lonely hill side near Kiefer two years ago. Reed has been confined in the Creek County jail ever since his arrest two weeks after the girl's body was found and the confinement has transformed him from a splendid specimen of manhood into a living skeleton.
A jury has twice been unable to determine upon Reed's guilt or innocence, standing 9 to 3 for conviction at the first trial, and ten to two for conviction at the second trail.

The Oklahoma Leader
March 25, 1915

Grove, Okla. March 18-Jack Baldridge, a farmer shot and killed his nephew, John Howard at the latter's farm near this place Wednesday morning. Baldridge went to the field where Howard was working and shot him five times with a 38 caliber automatic pistol killing him instantly. Baldridge then fired a number of shots at his brother, Green, who was on horseback, was passing. Baldridge and his wife had quarreled and Mrs. Baldridge had gone to the Howard home with her children. Baldridge demanded the children, but Howard refused to give them up, whereupon Baldridge came to town and asked the authorities to assist him in the matter. Upon their refusal he purchases a revolver, went home and the killing followed. A number of officers headed by a deputy United States marshal from Sheldon are in pursuit of Baldridge, but as yet no arrest has been made.

The Oklahoma Leader
March 25, 1915

Oilton, Okla. March 24-John Dossett, for many years one of the bet known peace officers in the Southwest, is in Oilton to contract with the citizens to install a fire department and handling it together with being city marshal. Ever since the opening of the Iowa-Comanche country, Dossett has been on the police force at Lawton, also serving at different times as deputy United States marshal. Prior to that time he was for many years in the Osage nation as cattle ranch foreman and officer. It was during his residence in the Osage that he was arrested on a charge of giving poisoned whiskey into another cowboy. Dossett was tried, convicted and sentenced to hang, and while he waited the day of execution he could hear the carpenters building his scaffold just outside the old federal jail at Guthrie Dossett got a new trial just in the nick of time and was acquitted, it being proved beyond a doubt that a third cowboy, who was jealous of both Dossett and he man he killed, prepared and passed the poisoned liquor.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 1, 1915

Oklahoma City, Okla. March 27-Ernest Melton, 19, barber, alias Eddie Parker is on trial in the superior court at Tulsa on the charge of murdering W. L. Gilcrease, oilman. This is the second trial. The first resulted in a hung jury.
Following the first trial. Melton was released on bond. He was arrested soon after in Oklahoma City on a charge of forgery. He was arrested in women's clothing after he had stood officers off for several hours with two guns. He is charged in Oklahoma City with attempting to give a forged check for about $400 while dressed as a woman.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 1, 1915

Stroud, Okla. March 31-When Starr fell Curry shouted at him "Throw you run or I'll kill you." Starr flung his revolver away. Then Curry went over to him. They carried Starr to a doctor's office over in the bank, and when Patrick went to see him, Starr said "you can have that diamond your mother gave me now," and Patrick got it out of his pocket and also got the sack of money out of his pocket.
"What did that kid shoot me with," asked Starr.
When told that it was a hog rifle he said: "A hog gun and a kid too. I wouldn't have mined it so much if a man had shot me." His leg bone was shattered close to the hip. He did not flinch while the doctor was dressing it.
Two men followed the fleeing bandits in a motorcar and two miles out they came upon Estes leaning against a tree. He held up one hand in surrender and he was taken back to Stroud and into the room with Starr. When Starr saw him he said, "Estes I'd rather have been killed myself than had them catch you," Starr said to the Doctor. That Estes kid is sure some fine kid." "Estes told his name and that he had a wife and two brothers in Webb City, Mo. "Clamp down on the conversation kid," Starr said to him. "Don't talk at all." Starr was recognized by several men who knew him."
Yes, I'm Starr," he said. "The jigs up now."
"Doctor," Starr said, "you take my horse and saddle and keep it for the work you're doing on my leg.
"Oh, that's too much," the doctor said.
"Well, you keep it. I won't have any further use for it. You take it and save the kid there. "I paid $600 for that horse."
The doctor said he thought it queer that the gang deserted Starr as he lay on the ground.
"That's all right; we agreed before we started in that it would be every man for himself!" Starr replied.
Someone told Starr, they had his gang surrounded in a black jack thicket. "Hell's bells not them boys don't stop in no thickets." he answered.
There was talk of lynching the two bandits and Starr heard the talk. He turned to the doctor, J. J. Evans, and asked:
"Doc, have you got any poison? I don't give a dam about dying, but I don't want to be strung up."
In Starr's pocket was found the picture of one of his wives, and he has several. This was the woman who eloped with him, from Denver a few years ago. Starr dictated a telegram to her and another to his mother in Tulsa to come and see him. "I am bad hurt," he wired. The names of the bandits are known. The William J. Burns, Detective Agency of Tulsa has been keeping tabs on members of the gang for months. The Burns agency knew last week that Starr had returned to Oklahoma from Nevada and that he had called his gang together and that they had ridden south from the Osage Nation and the Burns agency sent out warnings to banks in different towns but not to Stroud. Right after news of the robbery here was sent out the Burns detective agent sent word to Judge J. T. Haynes in Stroud that the gang of eight bandits was composed of Starr, Bates, Ammerman, Davis, Van Morgan, Ward and Johnson, all widely known long riders.
Later the Burns agent came here with photographs of each of the eight men, and men here who saw the bandits identified them.
A peculiar thing is that Lee Patrick, cashier of the Stroud bank, cashed A SMALL CHECK FOR Ammerman the day before the robbery. In the pocket of Starr was found a diagram of another small town near here with the two banks marked on it. Starr said after he was shot that he intended to rob the two banks in Stroud Friday, but two of his gang were superstitious and wouldn't do it on an unlucky Friday.
Four Thousand Dollars Taken From One Bank And Seventeen Hundred from Another
Sensational Finish to Daring Outlaw Gang at Stroud
Town of Stroud, 55 Miles East of Guthrie, Stages Dramatic Wild West Scene' Bandits Starr and Elliott Are Wounded; Paul Curry, 16, Grover's Boy, to Get $1,000 Reward; Balance of Gang is Surrounded in a Pasture
Henry Starr, bandit chief, was shot in the right leg. Floyd Elliott, his pal, was shot through the left lung. The $1,700 taken from the Stroud National bank, was found in Starr's hip pocket. The $4,000 taken from First National bank is still I possession of the ten bandits who are now surrounded in a pasture two miles east of town.
April 1, 1915-The Oklahoma Leader-Stroud, Okla. March 27-The notorious band of bank bandits, led by Henry Starr, met its Waterloo at 10:30 o'clock in this town.
The Starr gang of desperadoes rode into town at 10 o'clock. There were eleven men in the party.
They held up the First National Bank, of Stroud, and secured $4,000. Then the Stroud National bank was held up and $1,700 taken.
Starr Shot in Leg
In the fusillade of shots immediately following the holdups, Henry Starr, the bandit chieftain, was shot in the leg by Paul Curry, a Stroud boy, aged 16, and captured.
Floyd Elliott, another bandit, was shot through the left lung. The $1,700 was recovered from Starr. A posse of more than 150 citizens surrounds the other ten bandits.
Holdups Were Bold
The holdups were the boldest ever recorded.
It was shortly after 10:15 Saturday morning, when the seven robbers, led by Starr, on whose head is a legislative price of $1,000 rode into this tranquil town of 1,800 people.
The robbers rode direct to the stockyards where they dismounted and tied their horses.
No masks were worn.
The bandits walked to the Stroud National bank where the gang of eleven divided.
Seven entered the First National bank and four the Stroud National.
"Hands Up" Said Starr
Henry Starr led three men into the Stroud National. Advancing to the cashier's window, he cried: "Everybody-hands up!" There were fifteen people in the bank. All were covered by the three robbers as Starr demanded of the cashier:
"Shove out the stuff and be d-d quick about it!" The cashier shoved out $1,700 in bills, which Starr rammed into his pocket.
Starr Spurned Silver
He spurned $100 in silver.
Enoch North led the band, which stood up eleven men in the First National bank and received an even $4,000 in currency.
The holdups were pulled off like clockwork. Not a soul resisted. Each band emerged from each of the banks at the same time.
The robbers ran to the stockyards.
Meanwhile, the townspeople rushed to the streets, firing.
More than 50 shots had been fired before the robbers had untied their horse.
Bandit Elliott is Shot
Elliott was the first to mount. As he swung in his stirrup, he fired on the advancing crowd.
Suddenly he threw up his hands and fell to the ground. His maddened horse dashed into the crowd. Elliott had been shot through the left lung. The horse created a diversion and enabled ten of the robbers to dash away.
Henry Starr hung back a moment to watch Elliott.
As Starr started to leap to his saddle Paul Curry, aged 18, a grocer's boy, took careful aim. Starr went down. He had been shot in the leg. The crowd rushed up and captured the noted bandit leader.
Starr Wanted to Be Killed
"Kill me now," cried Starr. He was quickly tied with ropes and taken to the city jail. In his hip pocket the $1,700 in currency was found intact.
More than one hundred and fifty citizens were organized in a posse and within thirty minutes the ten fleeing bandits were surrounded in a pasture two miles east of town
The robbers dismounted and were prepared to sell their lives dearly.
Starr a Notorious desperado
Henry Starr, the wounded and captured bandit, is the last of the original band of desperadoes, which has terrorized old Indian Territory, Oklahoma and Texas for 20 years.
It is said that Starr has to his credit sixty-five successful bank holdups. He has been wounded three times and has served two penitentiary sentences. Starr was a pal of Doolin, Dalton, Cravens and other noted desperadoes. His sister is he noted Belle Starr.
In January last, fourteen banks in eastern Oklahoma were robbed within three weeks. At Terlton the last a deputy sheriff was killed. The outlawry became so flagrant that the legislature was forced to action and a bill was enacted authorizing Governor Williams to offer a reward of $1,000 for the capture of Henry Starr dead or alive.
Curry to Get Reward
This reward will go to Paul Curry, the plucky grocer's boy, of Stroud. Last weeks Starr's wife, who lives at Muskogee, sued him for divorce, on grounds of nonsupport.
Starr is bold and cruel. He has a gift for organizing bad men and making them do his bidding. Starr is 51 years old. Starr will probably be taken to the federal jail in Guthrie for safe keeping.
Shot at Citizens
A rumor was current at noon today that two citizens were shot by the bandits, who refused to hold up their hands. This is not true. One citizen in the First National bank was slow in lifting his hands and was fired at, but was not struck. He lost no time, however, in getting his hands up. It was aid that Dr. J. C. Burton dressed the wounds of one citizen. Dr. Burton phoned The Leader "no one was hurt, except Starr and Elliott." Dr. Burton said "the citizens have the outlaws surrounded in a pasture and will soon close in on them, unless they surrender.
Diamonds in his possession and photographs and letters in his pocket positively identified Starr.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 1, 1915

April 1, 1915-The Oklahoma Leader-Stroud, Okla. March 29-The posse chasing the bank robbers have returned empty handed, declaring that the robbers are safe in the Osage Hills and headed for the Kiamchi Mountains.
Paul Curry, who shot the bandits, will probably get $3,400 for the act, a thousand from the state of Oklahoma for Starr; $1,400 from Colorado for Starr and a thousand for Estes.
"I'm going into the grocery business with father," said the boy.
Henry Starr, leader of the outlaw gang, who was host and captured at Stroud, Saturday, after robbing two National banks, was in Guthrie last Tuesday.
He was recognized by several persons, among them Mike Cassidy.
"I know Starr well," said Mr. Cassidy, today. "He knows me, too. When he saw me he ducked up the stairway over the Logan County bank. I found Jim Baxter, who also knows Starr, and we searched the town for him, but were unable to locate the outlaw."
Cassidy and Baxter believe that Starr was here for the purpose of recruiting his gang and when the five remaining bandits are taken characters who have figured in Guthrie police records will be found among the number.
"Starr was either in Guthrie on a recruiting expedition, or he was 'locating' for an attack on local banks."
Outlaws Make Getaway
All trace of the band of desperadoes, who escaped from Stroud, Saturday after robbing two national banks, has been lost. After eluding a number of mounted posses and a company of Oklahoma National guard early Sunday morning they were reported to have passed through Kelleyville on their way to the vastness of the Kiamichi Mountains. Since then no report of their being seen has been received.
The condition of Henry Starr, the notorious Cherokee desperado, and another of the band named Estes, alias Elliott, who were captured after being shot by Paul Curry, 18 years old, and son of the town marshal at Stroud is reported improved. Starr, who is said to have been the leader of the band, and Estes, are held in jail at Chandler.
Starr Sent for Mulhall
Zack Muhall, the ranchman and showman, was the third party asked for by Starr after he was shot at Stroud. Mulhall was stringing fence wires when handed Starr's telegram. He dropped work immediately, came to Guthrie, and boarded the Ft. Smith and Western for Warwick. He reached Chandler Saturday evening and held a whispered conversation with Starr. Mr. Mulhall returned today.
"Starr's condition is fairly good," he said. "I think both he and Estes or Elliott, will recover. There is no truth in the story that any of the Wild West boys from my ranch were in the hold-up."
Starr and Estes are under heavy guard at the Chandler jail. When the Curry boy shot Starr, the other outlaws would have turned and protected Star and Estes, but Starr waved them onward. "Starr's signal prevented a lot of new made graves at Stroud," said a Stroud merchant.
Went for Money and Got It
"We went to the banks to get the money. We got it. We have no one to blame but ourselves. There are five good men left in the crowd" said Henry Starr while admitting his identity Saturday night.
The three official posses scouring the country for the remaining five bandits reported that no trace of the fleeing men had been found.
The actual amount of money taken from the two banks was $5,850. Of this $1,750 was recovered from Starr
In the Mountains
The escaping robbers are reported to be headed for the Kiamichi Mountains in the extreme southeast corner of the state, where safety lies in wait for them. Old officers, who have hunted criminals in the vastness of the mountains, declare that only a mere accident could bring about the arrest of the bank robbers once they had reached the well know haunts of desperate men. Almost an unexplored wilderness, inhabited by few human beings, except fugitives form justice, it has long been an outlaw's haven. Safe in its depths the outlaws would be able to hold out against almost any force probably for months with the assistance which would be rendered them by their fiends. Game is plentiful and caves and rude huts would serve for homes.
Early this morning two of the bandits, one of them believed to be badly wounded, were reported surrounded in the Micawber bottoms, thirty five miles southeast of Stroud.
Chance for Movies
The Nix-Tilghman Anti-Outlaw Movie Company which has been building scenes in Lincoln country for two months, found much material to work on after the hold ups took place.
Henry Starr's birthplace is a little log house about 3 miles northeast of Fort Gibson. Not far from this house is the home of Mrs. Maude Benge, Starr's sister. She is a school teacher.
Divorced, But Loves Him Still
Sapulpa, Okla. March 29-"Let me go and take care of Henry. I love him so, although I'm not his wife by law but am in love."
This was the plea made by Mrs. Henry Starr only a few minutes after she had been granted a divorce from her bandit husband.
When she received the news of Starr's capture and injury she began to cry.
"I love Henry; he's my boy," she sobbed to officers in the courtroom. "I have given up all hope of every keeping him from the clutches of the law but I think I could take better care of him while he is suffering.
Friends and officers advised Mrs. Starr not to undertake the task of nursing her divorced husband.
A picture of Mrs. Starr was taken from Starr's clothes after he was shot.
Ms. Starr sent word to Chandler that she was coming to nurse the wounded bandit.
Mrs. Elwick, of Tulsa, a "friend" and Mrs. Starr, mother of the bandit, are attending the injured bandit at the Chandler jail.
A big bunch of old possemen and former marshals have gone to Chandler to see Starr.
After the Caney robbery Starr was betrayed and captured in Colorado Springs, Colo. He was taken to Arkansas and convicted of the Bentonville robbery. He was released from the state prison in 1906 after serving nearly thirteen years.
Starr was accused of a bank robbery at Amity, Colo., but later was released on parole. It is for violation of this parole that he is wanted in Colorado.
One of the stories, which reveal the dashing bravado of the man, is that of this romance and marriage. Among the passengers of a train robbed near Pryor Creek, Okla., in 1902, was a young woman who, crazed with fear, ran away in the darkness. Later, it is said, the robbers found her and Starr lifted her to his horse and carried her to a railway train that she might continue her journey. She was a young woman of Joplin Mo., and Starr later married her. She has been a school teacher much of the time since her wedding.
Starr Thinks of Family
Many of those who know Henry Starr talked to him this afternoon and Starr does not seem to be suffering much pain. A physician dressed his wound. He asked that a telegram be sent to his relative informing them that he was not badly hurt.
The telegram sent by Paul Curry, who captured Starr, was as follows:
"Stroud, March 27-Governor Williams, Oklahoma City. Both Stroud banks of First National were robbed by Henry Starr and bunch. I shot Starr through leg and also captured him. Also shot one other and he was captured. Will hold for your disposal and claim reward. Yours respectfully-Paul Curry
A letter was received from Governor Williams this morning purporting to have come from Henry Starr at Reno, Nevada. It has been pronounced by police and state officials as a clever ruse of Starr's to turn suspicion away from him or his associates in the robbery, which they had evidently then planned at Stroud. Comparisons of known specimens of Starr's handwriting and the writing in the letter correspond, according to P. N. Brewer of the city bureau of identification.
The letter was supposedly an appeal from Starr to the governor for a chance to disprove statements to the effect that he was in this state at the time of the bank robberies here several months ago. He stated that he had been in Nevada for months and that he was ignorant of the price that had been placed upon his capture until he met an Oklahoman, an old friend of his whom he said told him.
The letter contained the statement that he (Starr) had been in Nevada the day of the bank robberies here and he could prove this to the satisfaction of the governor. Police had received word from Colorado that Starr had been there since the robberies.
It was alleged that he ran way with the wife of another man there. It was believed several days ago that he was still in Oklahoma, when his wife filed suit for divorce.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 8, 1915

Masked Men Lock Bank Officers In Safe and Take $2,500
Arkansas City, April 7-Three men, heavily armed and mounted on race horses, quietly rode into Kaw City, a small town south of Arkansas city late Tuesday afternoon and entering the First National bank, held up the cashier, John Hoefer and his assistant, Arthur Sanderson. The robbers worked quietly; they took their time and secured all the money on hand, $2,500. After looting the bank they locked the two officers in the vault and rode away toward the Osage hills.
The bankers had a contrivance on the inside of the vault by which they could open the door, and they freed themselves in a short time.
They gave the alarm and soon Sheriff Johnston and a large posse started in pursuit of the robbers into the hills east of Kaw. The men are described as one short with about two week's growth of beard and the others tall. They had handkerchiefs around their necks and pulled them over their faces as they entered the bank.
No one was aware that a bank robbery was being pulled off until the men were seen riding away on their horses at a fast pace.
Of the money stolen $1,00 was in $500 bills that the cashier had just brought from the express office. The rest was in currency, god and silver. Most of the bank's cash was in the safe, which has time lock. The loss is covered by insurance.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 8, 1915

Henry Starr, bandit chieftain, confined in the county jail at Chandler, is in a dangerous condition.

Blood poisoning has set in and amputation of his leg may be necessary.
Mrs. Starr, mother of the outlaw, and his former wife are at his bedside. County Attorney Speakeman said today that Starr and Estes would not be moved until they are well.
Want Curry in Movies
Paul Curry, the sixteen-year old boy who shot and captured Henry Starr is being deluged with letters, with offers to go on the stage and to act in moving pictures. The boy is only a country youth with little education but he is bearing the praise and notoriety that have come to him very modestly. A Muskogee newspaperman wrote young curry several days ago, asking for a photograph and information as to what the boy intended doing with the $1,000 reward for capturing Starr. Since that time young Curry has asked for the reward and learned that its payment depends upon Starr's conviction. It was probably just after he had received this information that Paul penned the answer to the question of how it feels to get a thousand dollars for shooting a desperado "Dear Sir: Excuse my hurrying but I have many letters to answer. As for pictures I have none taken as yet, I do not expect no thousand dollars. I don't think the Gov. has enough business nor money but what he would need the thousand although I would like to have it. Yours truly-Paul Curry."
Starr in Kiefer Holdup
George Hollis, who owns and operates the Commercial Hotel here and a garage in Depew, said today that he positively identified Henry Star, now in jail at Chandler, as the leader of the gang that robbed the Central State Bank of Kiefer of $6,500 last summer.
Hollis said to Starr: "Don't you know me?"
"No, I never seen you before," Starr replied.
Hollis then said he (Hollis) was in the Central State bank last summer when Starr and his gang robbed it. Starr insisted it was not he. "I have been out of the state eight years. I came back just a few days before this job was pulled off." He said.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 8, 1915

Chandler, Okla., April 3-Mrs. Louise Estes, wife of the wounded bandit in jail here, arrived Thursday from Neosho, Mo., and went immediately to see hr husband. Mrs. Estes says that for some time she and her husband have been living in Missouri, here her husband worked in coal mines.
Although information has been filed against Estes and Starr charging them in participating in the raid on the Stroud banks last Saturday morning, the date for the preliminary hearing has not been set.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 8, 1915

"These things are of not value to me, but I'd hate it if the farmers had them to pay," and with that remark Henry Starr, the bandit leader who is now in the Lincoln County jail at Chandler, with a broken leg as the result of his capture a week ago, threw a heavy bundle of mortgages and notes, with a stone tied to them, into California creek in Northern Oklahoma and they were never recovered.
Starr and his men had taken the bank's papers when they rifled the Bank of Caney, Kan., several years ago, and he said he took them just so the farmers would not have them to pay. It was suggested to Starr that the papers should be burned, but he was afraid the smoke would attract attention to his hiding place.
The incident in Starr's bandit career was told yesterday by a long time resident of the Cherokee country. He has known Starr for a number of years has played poker with him frequently, and he insists that Starr is the coolest and yet one of the kindliest of men. After the Kansas robbery, the Starr gang rode into northern Oklahoma and hid for some time, and it was at this time that the mortgages and notes were destroyed. The total value of the papers was perhaps never known, but a man who saw them declares the bundle was twelve inches through.
It was following this same robbery; too, that Starr made one of his most spectacular getaways. He and two of his men rode into an isolated community during the night and concealed themselves in a big stone barn, which was located on the edge of a small valley with hills not far distant and almost surrounding it. Starr and his men slept until late in the day and then played pitch and shot craps for the small change that they had secured at the bank. They would shoot for a handful of the small silver dimes and quarters, without any attempt being made to ascertain the amount.
The whereabouts of Starr and his two companions became known to the county sheriff, who with a posse of twenty or thirty men went to the stone barn with the intention of capturing the trio. The members of the posse were stationed on the hills surrounding the barn, and they imagined it would be impossible for the outlaws to escape. When Starr was notified of the presence of the officers, he went into the barnyard and motioned to the sheriff, whom he knew will, to confer with him. Starr shook hands with the sheriff as though glad to meet an old friend and then said to him:
"I am going to leave here at 5 o'clock; there are three of us. If you do not want your men hurt, you had better get them out of the way, for when we start we are going through your lines. Tell your men that for me."
The sheriff returned to his men, called them together and told them what Starr had said; within five minutes there was not a man other than the sheriff left within rifle distance of Henry Starr. That evening at five, as he had announced Starr and his men rode quietly, and without being molested, from the barn and toward the Osage hills.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 15, 1915

Oklahoma City, April 14-Widespread discussion and comment on the arrest of Henry Starr, who is now in jail at Chandler, has led an inquisitive person in the Cherokee country to investigate the rolls of the Cherokees and count the number of persons of that name therein.
It has been found that there are more Starrs on the rolls of that tribe than persons of any other name except Vann. Of the latter there are 500, while the Starrs number 300. These Starr members of the tribe are not all related to each other.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 15, 1915

Report came from Chandler Saturday, that Henry Starr, bank bandit has confessed to the Stroud bank robbery and with Bill Estes his captured pal, has turned state's evidence, the information on which the officers are working and which has resulted in the arrests of three other men who are alleged members of the gang, was furnished by one or both of the two men first arrested. The sheriff's office is reticent about the matter.
Five men, Henry Star, Bill and Same Estes, brothers, Bud Maxfield and Claud Sawyer are held in the county jail at Chandler, and will formally charged with the robbery of the two Stroud banks which were plundered by a gang of bandits about who weeks ago. Starr and Estes already have been charged with bank bribery. However, Maxfield, Sam Estes and Sawyer were only incarcerated I the Chandler jail Friday afternoon having been taken from Tulsa.
Despite the fact that the sheriff's office declined to give out any information regarding the developments in the holding of Estes and Maxfield in jail, it was learned from a source usually well informed that evidence has been obtained by the use of a dictograph. The dictograph was secretly placed over the cells in which the two men are held about 9 o'clock Thursday night. However, the chances for a complete story of the robbery and statements which the two men might have made was shattered by a dope fiend in an adjoining cell, who saw the officers placing the wire and tipped the game to the alleged robbers.
"We must prove an alibi-you can't tell what they have on us and we must be able to prove where we were at the time of the robbery."
The foregoing was about all that the dictograph caught. When the men were told by the man in another cell they did not talk further about their case. The scattering bits of conversation picked up by the dictograph wire were taken from the record in the sheriff's office.
Other arrests in connection with the Stroud robberies are expected to follow within the next few days. Officers throughout eastern Oklahoma are searching for the bandits and if the reports that either Starr or Bill Estes is furnishing officials with the information are correct the entire gang likely will be rounded up within the next few days.
It also was learned yesterday that the ammunition, which was used by the bandits in the street fight following the robbery, was bought in Tulsa. Two young men who officials are withholding names for the present bought a quantity of revolver cartridges at Tulsa the Monday before the robbery.
Following the buying of the munitions they met a third party and together they drove to a house where they obtained four quarts of whiskey. There a fourth man joined them and they drove to the fairgrounds where Henry Starr met them. Here the plans were man in detail for the robbery of the Stroud banks. Had Starr not been captured two other banks would probably have been robbed a few days after the Stroud affair. Starr and his gang intended to rob a Sapulpa bank.
Two prominent and wealthy Tulsa Indians who have royalties from oil producing lands that aggregate more than five hundred dollars a day knew of the plans of the Stroud robbery and they would have been participants ha it not been for the threat of their wives. The wives of the two men said they would inform the officers if they participated in the robberies. One of the Indians own considerable Tulsa real estate and rental property.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 15, 1916

Tulsa, April 10-Lee Patrick, cashier of the Stroud National bank and the man whom the diamond was taken from by the Starr gang of bank robbers about two weeks ago, has positively identified Bud Maxwell and Sam Estes as two of the men who were in the gang.
Patrick came to Tulsa at the request of the county attorney's office, after Maxwell and Estes had been arrested. He saw the two alleged bandits in their cells in the county jail yesterday morning. (previous article spelled it Maxfield)

The Oklahoma Leader
April 15, 1915

De Queen, Ark, April 9-James and Hood Baldwin, brothers, and wealthy cattlemen of near Broken Bow, Okla., were convicted by a jury here of holding up the Bank of Gillham, Ark., March 3. Witnesses testified the men obtained $1,000 and escaped after forcing the bank president, cashier and a patron to accompany them to the edge of the city. Sentence was deferred. During the trial the court ordered persons entering the courtroom searched for weapons.

The Oklahoma Leader
April 22, 1915

Sapulpa, April 21-W. I. Herod, city marshal of Mounds, shot and killed Jim Tiger, a wealthy Indian this morning. Tiger was intoxicated and lost control of his team while attempting to drive out of Mounds. Herod went to his assistance by Tiger drew a revolver. The marshal drew his own weapon and killed the Indian before the latter could fire. Herod was arrested.
Tiger is the third member of a wealthy family of Indians to meet violent death, a brother having been mysteriously shot from ambush less than a month ago.

The Oklahoma Leader
January 16, 1916

Burbank, Okla., May 18-Fort minutes after Lee Harris, James Parker and W. H. Hancock had secured $943 by a daylight raid on the Farmers State bank of Burbank, the 1915 model automobile in which they fled was a total wreck; the three robbers were under arrest, and $443 of the money recovered.
The two entered the bank about 10 o'clock Monday morning, held up Cashier J. B.. Yount, secured the money and fled in the automobile, taking Cashier Yount with them. The robbers were masked while in the bank and did not remove their disguise until they had released Yount two miles out of town.
One of the trio was captured by Hugh Johnston, sheriff of Kay County, the other two being extricated from beneath their wrecked automobile by Mayor W. H. McFadden and companions of Ponca City.
While the robbers in their automobile were fleeing from a posse composed of George Wallace, Dave Donaldson and W. F. Proffer, who were also in an automobile, the bandit's car suddenly tuned completely over, seriously injuring two of the occupants. The third man ran into the Arkansas River bottoms nearby. Wallace and his companions came upon the injured robbers about the time that McFadden was extricating the two men from beneath the wrecked car.
Sheriff Johnston accompanied by Deputy T. Driscoll, N. A. Acton, cashier of the Germania National bank of Ponca City and J. Q. Louthan had gone out from Ponca City to head off the robbers. As the posse neared the Arkansas River near Ponca City, a haggard man ran out of the brush along the river bottom, threw up his hands and said, "I guess I am the man you are looking for." He was taken in charge, but only $3 in money was found on the man, who gave his name as Lee Harris of Pawhuska. He was armed with a heavy revolver.
The men extricated from the wrecked automobile gave their names as James Parker and W. H. Hancock and assert that their homes are in Bartlesville. Parker's collar one, and arm and three ribs are broken as the result of the automobile being wrecked. Hancock is badly bruised about the head and body. Parked and Hancock are no in the county jail at Pawhuska in Osage county, while Harris the one captured by Sheriff Johnston and his party, is in the county jail in Newkirk, in Kay county.

The Oklahoma Leader
May 27, 1915

Tulsa, Okla., May 22-"I am taking things easy," says Henry Starr in a letter to a personal friend in Tulsa.
Starr is incarcerated in the Lincoln County jail at chandler, with a wound in his hip, inflicted by a youth when the Indian and his band of outlaws were trying to make their escape after robbing two banks at Stroud, Okla., a few weeks ago.
"I am getting along all right," Starr wrote, "but it takes a little time to get over a smash like I got. I am able to get around on crutches for a short time each day. The doctor thinks it will be two months before I can put any weight on my injured leg with safety. The leg is about three-fourths an inch short. I am taking things easy and don't know when I will be arraigned on this charge. I live in Tulsa, as you no doubt read some time back. Saw the Tulsa boosters here yesterday. They stopped at the jail and played us a couple of pieces."

The Oklahoma Leader
June 10, 1915

Al Jennings, the ex-outlaw is going to hit the trail. He's going to hit the trail from California to New York, preaching the gospel to very creature.
News to this effect reached here today from California, where Jennings was converted and baptized. Following his conversion by Dr. Troy of Glendale, Cal. Jennings began a series of whirlwind revival services in that city.
A Los Angeles newspaper printed this story:

"Preaching the gospel. Jennings will hit the trail from Glendale to New York, via Los Angeles, where he probably will hold revival meetings soon.
"Out Sundaying Billy Sunday" the converted outlaw declared that he is going after whiskey and to save the world from hell."
"Now that I am under the greatest banner of all continued Jennings. I can do more than I ever did before. I thought I had done a great deal to come back. But no man stands still. I had to go back or go on, though I didn't know it till Dr. Troy killed the last few doubts left in my mind toward the gospel of Christianity."

The Oklahoma Leader
June 24, 1915

Pemeta, Okla., June 19-Thirty five thousand dollars in greenbacks are cached under a boulder which overhangs the railroad track at Bald Knob, Colorado, according to Harry Rhodes, former cowboy and Indian scout who has been on the border for fifty years and Rhodes will leave during the present month for Colorado, accompanied by his dog, to spend several months, if necessary, hunting for the treasure. He made the announcement recently and says he will spend the summer on foot in the mountains, his former haunts.
The $35,000 was put there out outlaws, says Rhodes nearly twenty years ago and until recently he has maintained that it would be practically impossible to locate the money. He has changed his mind however, and believes he has solved the problem. He says there is no doubt but that the sand, rocks and other debris have washed against and around the boulder, making it more difficult to locate.
"This $35,000 was obtained in a rich haul made by a band of outlaws," said Rhodes recently, "but it became necessary for them to cache the paper money for the time being. They climbed the bluff, put the money in a cleft in a rock and then with crowbars, turned another boulder on top of the cleft. The money was wrapped in a piece of buckskin and then encased in some copper. I know that it has never been recovered, and perhaps it may never be.
"A banker living in Winfield, Kan., paid $1,500 to one man who claimed to know the location of the greenbacks, for a map that purported to show where the money was hidden. After almost a year's search, however, he believes he has solved the futile. Many others have tried to find the money during the past few years.
Rhodes started life as a freighter out of Caldwell, Kan., when but 10 hears old driving a team of mules for his father. The team boss was Bill Doolin, later to become an outlaw leader in Oklahoma territory.

The Oklahoma Leader
July 1, 1915

Muskogee, July 14-The trials of Claud Sawyer, Charlie Johnson and Albert Maxfield, three of the defendants in the Stroud bank robbery cases, will open at Chandler July 20, when the case against Sawyer will be called. Johnson's case is set for July 22 and Maxfield's for July 23. A second case against Johnson and Sawyer is set for July 26.
The trial of the cases promises a number of sensations. The boldness of the robbery of the two Stroud banks, which was led by Henry Starr, the notorious bandit, and which was one of a chain or robberies, spurred the state bankers' association to employ extraordinary methods of apprehending Starr's accomplices. All but one of who escaped after citizens of Stroud had opened fire on them. Starr was wounded as was also his confederate Estes. Thirty detectives were employed on the case and their testimony will consume much of the trial.

The Oklahoma Leader
July 15, 1915

Clinton, Okla., July 13-Fred Hollingsworth, deputy sheriff of Washita County, was shot and instantly killed eleven miles southwest of Clinton at 11 o'clock Monday morning by an unknown white man who, it is believed, Saturday night burglarized the general merchandize store of Herring & Young of this place.
Hollingsworth, accompanied by a small posse of local citizens, started early Monday morning on a search of the country southwest of here for the robber. The posse spread out in order to take in as much of the country as possible and was met again at a point a mile or two ahead. When Hollingsworth failed to show up at the meeting place a search was instituted for him. About a half mile from where the posse started he was found dead, his heart pierced by a bullet from a .38 caliber revolver. As the posse reached the scene of the dead man, Hollingsworth's assailant was seen running several yards away. The posse started in pursuit, but he escaped in the country.
The weapon the man used in his murderous attack upon Hollingsworth, it is said, was stolen from the store of Herring & Young, together with several other pieces of merchandize Saturday night. Hollingsworth's assailant is described by those who saw him as being about 35 years old, heavy set, weight about 165 pounds and wore blue overalls over a dark suit of clothes. The posse continued its search for the man Monday night without success.
Hollingsworth's body was brought to Clinton late Monday afternoon and was prepared for burial. He was about 50 years old and married. His body was taken to Cordell Monday night.

The Oklahoma Leader
July 22, 1915

Lawton, July 17-Bat Carr, well-known cattleman of this section with a large ranch at the foot of the Wichita, near Cache, Friday mooring shot and killed Frank Lutz, following a fight in which Carr was badly beaten by Lutz. This tragedy occurred at Carr's home in Cache and has caused a big excitement. Two years ago Lutz married a girl whom Carr and his wife had raised. When Carr's wife died a month ago she left a fortune estimated at $50,000, the major portion of which went to charitable institutions. About $2,000, however, was left to Lutz's wife and it was known that Carr was intending to bring legal action to break the will. A controversy over the breaking of the will caused Friday's tragedy. There wee no witnesses to the killing, Lutz's wife having run for help when the men were fighting.
Carr says that after beating him up with some iron instrument, Lutz returned to the house with a hammer in his hand and that he warned him to drop the hammer. He says Lutz raised the hammer and Carr fired the first shot. Carr says he fired three shots that Lutz had stopped in the road as though to pick up something when the last shot, the one that killed him was fired. Lutz was evidently attempting to get away from the scene for the body was found fifty years from the Car home, lying in the road.
The corner's jury returned a formal verdict finding that Lutz came to his death from a pistol shot fired by Bat Carr. The body of the deceased was brought to Lawton, Carr, is held in the county jail.
Bat Carr is one of the best-known pioneers of this section. He has been in this part of the state for more than forty years. As a boy he served as scout for the officers at Fort Sill. At Caldwell, Kans. During the days of the bad men, in 1882, the citizens sent for Bat Carr and made him marshal, and he rid the community of the bad characters in one year. For this he was presented with a handsome single-action 45 Colt's revolver, which he prized highly. It was with this gun that he killed Lutz. For several years Carr served as United States marshal in Texas and was known as a fearless officer. Carr is 66 years of age.
Lutz resided in Lawton for a number of years after the opening, but of late years has been engaged in farming near Cache. He leaves three children two by a former wife.

The Oklahoma Leader
July 29, 1915

Chandler, July 21-Louis Estes, pal of Henry Starr, who was wounded in the shoulder at the time of the double bank robbery in Stroud, last April, pleaded guilty to the charge of conjoint robbery in the district court here today.
Starr, however, was not arraigned, but the fact that he has employed an attorney is taken as an indication that he will fight the case, and substantiate the statement made last week, declaring that the report to the effect that the would plead guilty was untrue, and was inspired by the prosecution.

The Oklahoma Leader
August 5, 1915

Chandler, Aug.2-Henry Starr, noted bank robber pleaded guilty of robbery today in district court an was sentenced to twenty five years in the state penitentiary.
Starr is the last of the bad men and bank robbers, who operated during the early and wild days following the opening of the country in 1889.
The crime for which he was convicted today was robbing two banks at Stroud last March. He said: "I couldn't beat aback like Al Jennings."
"Last June I was out of a job and couldn't find one. I started for home on night on a freight train. I broke my Colorado parole. I got home June 11, 1914. I stayed around until September and meanwhile banks were robbed in Oklahoma. They blamed them all on me. But I didn't have a hand in them."
It was for his son that the bandit held up the Stroud Banks.
"I wanted to make a stake for him" said Starr, "I wanted to make a big haul, fix the boy out and go off somewhere and be forgotten."
The robbery of the bank at Stroud was the most daring in the history of Oklahoma. On March 27, 1915, Starr and his men rode into the town, tied their horses to the stockyards fence, left one of their number in charge and proceeded to the two banks. The officials of the two banks were covered with revolvers and $5,000 in currency was taken.
As the bandits were escaping Paul Curry, a fifteen-year-old boy, ran into a butcher shop and secured a short barreled rife used for killing hogs. He fired at Starr. The bullet struck the outlaw in the leg shattering it. As Starr fell Curry shouted: "Throw away your gun or I'll kill you," Starr did. Louis Estes, one of the gang, was wounded, but escaped, wit the others.
"I am a bank robber and have been caught; that's all there is to it," said Starr, following his arrest. (articles have given age of Curry from 15 to 18 years of age)

The Oklahoma Leader
August 12, 1915

Tulsa, Okla. Aug. 7-Investigation was being made today by the county attorney into the alleged connection of three men, arrested near Sapulpa Wednesday with the Stroud bank robbery last March. The prisoners, Ralph Russell, Walter Spess and "Puss" Irvin, are held on a charge or robbing a drayman.
They were said to have been on their way to Chandler, where alleged members of the Starr gang are being tried, when arrested, and were reported to have planned to aid in some way Starr and his comrades.

The Oklahoma Leader
August 19, 1915

Chandler, Okla., Aug. 12-Bud Maxfield was sentence Thursday night by a jury in district court here to serve seven years in the state penitentiary for alleged participation in the robbing of the two banks at Stroud, March 27, last. The jury was out from 7 o'clock until 11:45 p.m. and was immediately discharged following the return of the verdict. Maxfield's attorneys gave notice that a new trial would be asked for.
Following the robbing of the two banks at Stroud, Marsh 27, last, five men, Henry Starr, Lewis Estes, Sawyer, Charles Johnson and Bud Maxfield were placed in the Lincoln County jail and charged with the robbery. Two others who participated in the robbery have so far escaped.
Starr and Estes were wounded and captured at the time of the robbery and pleaded guilty when arraigned. Starr was sentences to serve twenty-five years in the penitentiary at McAlester. Lewis Estes was not sentenced, and has been used as a state's witness against Sawyer, Johnson and Maxfield. Sawyer was first tried and was sentenced to serve five years in the state penitentiary. Johnson's trial immediately followed and he came clear, having established an alibi. Maxfield's trial immediately fooled Johnson's trial.
When Johnson was declared not guilty, he was immediately rearrested on a warrant charging him with having accepted part of the funds stolen from one of the banks. He has been in jail since his rearrest, but will make a $5,000 bond Friday for his appearance in court, said Prosecuting Attorney Streeter Speakman Thursday night. There is another charge pending against Bud Maxfield, but according to Prosecutor Speakman the charge will be permitted to remain on the docket indefinitely.
Saturday morning, March 27, Henry Starr and six companions rode into Stroud in a covered wagon. They robbed the First National bank and the Stroud National bank of more than $5,000. As they started out of town on their horses which they had saddled, Paul Curry, a 17 year old boy, wounded Starr in the hip and Estes in the shoulder, and they were captured. The arrest of the other three occurred several weeks later. (Paul Curry's age differs from one report to another)

The Oklahoma Leader
August 19, 1915

Pemeta, Okla. Aug. 14-Who was Tom Hell, a long wiry, mysterious individual who came to the oil field district during the winter of 1890-91 and made his home for several months in a big cave that still bears his name? All the first day citizens in this locality remember him well and tell stories of his mysterious comings and going, yet there is not a one of them was ever able to identify him. That he was an outlaw all are agreed, but why he was in hiding at that time has remained an unsolved problem.
The Tom Hell cave, is north of the Cimarron River, some distance from the mouth of Clear Creek. It is one of the most spacious caverns in the Cimarron River territory, large enough to house a number of men and their horses, and during the winter months when the ice in the creek is frozen, it is possible to drive a team and wagon into the opening and have them completely out of sight. This was done numerous times, the old timers say, while Tom Hell inhabited the cave.
While Hell was in this vicinity, other outlaws and bands of outlaws, who seemed to know him well, frequently visited him. He was always at home to any and all of them, and his place was recognized rendezvous during that winter. Oklahoma Territory had been opened to settlement but a short time and the bandit bands overran the Indian country. For a number of years after Hell quit his hiding place his name "Tom Hell" could be read on the many rocks about the caves' entrance; evidently he had taken a great delight in carving it. During his residence there also a barricade or rocks was placed a part of the way across the opening, with several convenient portholes by which the paths to the cave could be guarded.
"Several years after Tom Hell left these parts," said Dr. Bland recently, "I was a visitor in the federal court at Vinita. The man on trail, at that time, on a whiskey selling charge, attracted my attention because I knew I had seen him or been acquainted with him at some time in the past. All at once my memory placed him, it was "'Tom Hell." but we never found out just who he was."

The Oklahoma Leader
August 26, 1915

Bartlesville, Okla., Aug. 20-Wholesale exposures of cattle thieves, who have been operating in Osage and Washington counties for the last year, are expected to follow three arrests made yesterday, one in Bartlesville and two in Pawhuska. The three men now in the hands of he law are but a small part of the gang that has been "rustling" stock and has stolen cattle in such numbers that the owners have no idea just how many they have lost.
For months the authorities in Washington and Osage counties have been trying to apprehend the thieves, but the first important step towards topping the depredations was taken yesterday morning when Sheriff Griff Graham south of Bartlesville arrested a man. He furnished information, which took Sheriff Graham to Pawhuska yesterday. Two more arrests were made there. Before the end of the week it is expected that the whole gang will have been caught. The officers do not wish the names of those already arrested to be made public until he others are captured.
It is believed that there are at least a dozen in the gang. They were well organized and worked systematically. A few of the members of the gang were working on ranches. The betrayal of their employers' confidence made it much easier to place the cattle within reach of the others, who would remove them from the ranch.
"Bud" Pugh, manager of a ranch five miles southwest of Ochelata, said yesterday he had no idea how many of his cattle had been stolen. There are 5,000 or 6,000 cattle on the ranch, owned by a man named Houster of Texas. The ranch is located in both Washington and Osage counties, making it easy for the thieves to work out of both counties.
Others who have had cattle stolen are Wallace Price, John greenwood and Joe and Frank Little.
The thieves had a system of relaying the cattle when they removed them from the ranch where they belonged. One man, often an employee, would let a few cattle run into the next pasture, where a member of the gang was waiting. He would drive them on to an adjoining farm, where a third man would take charge of them. The cattle were finally rounded up in a secluded part of the Osage hills and a few at a time, would be taken to small towns like Ramona and Vera, where they would be sold.
For boldness and success in their operation, the thefts were not surpassed in the old territorial days when cattle rustling was common.

The Oklahoma Leader
October 27, 1915 (?)

Seven Masked Men, Heavily Armed, Hold Up and Rob Express Train
Blow Safe with "Soup"' Escape With Big Loot
Three Posses are Beating The Brush In The Fastness of Winding Stair Mountains For Robbers

Onopa, Oct. 27-Bandits and posse men engaged in a duel near this place this afternoon. The train robbers are heavily armed and well mounted. One of the robbers was wounded and his horse killed. The pursuit is on. Bloodhounds caught the trail early today.

The Oklahoma Leader
October 28, 1915

Eufaula, Okla., Oct. 27-
Three posses, one from Muskogee, one from here, and one from the state penitentiary at McAlester, the later being led by bloodhounds, are beating the marshes and wild forests of the Canadian River bottoms near Onapa and gradually working toward Winding Stair Mountains, in which are located the haunts of the old Davis gang of outlaws, in search of a band of seven men, who held up and robbed the Katy southbound passenger train No. 9.
The hold up was the most desperate and best planned Oklahoma robbery.
It is thought the robbers secured nine thousand dollars from one American Express Company's safe they succeeded in opening.
Two of the robbers boarded the train at Muskogee and hid on the tops of the cars. When No. 9 reached Wells Switch, they climbed into the engine cab and forced the engineer to stop the train. On the outside their five companions forced the train crew to alight. The passengers were also forced to file out of the coaches but were unmolested.
Three of the bandits guarded the crew and passengers while the remainder of the gang proceeded to work the express safes. They were unsuccessful in their efforts on three, but the fourth yielded after five charges of nitro glycerin had been fired.
The robbers poured he loot into sacks and disappeared on foot, shouting "Goodnight."
The gang flagged a freight train in the rear of the passenger during the robbery to prevent a wreck, and the crew commanded to line up with the passenger crew. One of the freight crew, however, escaped and gave the alarm at Checotah.
Nine of the ten safes carried by the express cars on No. 9 contained large sums of money and it is thought by the road officials that the robbers had been tipped.
A later report from Muskogee indicates that the robbers secured large number of packages containing bank notes of large denominations, possible $200,000. This report is neither denied nor affirmed by express company officers.

The Oklahoma Leader
November 11, 1915

Muskogee, Nov. 3-To Oklahoma's long history of banditdom, a history which presents tales of the daring picturesque yet lawless deeds of such men as Jesse and Frank James, Cole younger, Al Jennings, the Dalton boys, Henry Starr, Cherokee Bill and many others, there is about to be added another-the Smith boys, Dave and Joe.
The Smith boys are Muskogee country products. Their range is from the densely wooded bottom around Warner and Porum to the wild Kiamichi Mountains in southeaster Oklahoma. They are kinfolks to half the people who live in these hills.
The history of the Smith boys is only in the making, but already there is a price on the head of each and unless officers or citizens capture them, from the record that is theirs up to this time they will far surpass the deeds of which the others are remembered.
Quick With The Gun
Joe and Dave Smith are sons of Famous Smith, who while never an outlaw, murdered several men only because he killed them before they could kill him.
Two things put the Smith boys in the class of Oklahoma bandits. The first is that Dave Smith successfully engineered a jailbreak from the Muskogee county jail, nearly killing one guard, wounding another and exchanging shots with a pursuing posse.
The second is that practically every officer who has investigated the recent Katy Limited holdup at Onapa, Okla., is convinced that Dave and Joe Smith are two of the eight boys in that gang.
To those familiar with Oklahoma outlawry it is scarcely necessary to mention that officers believe the others in the part are members of the famous Jack Davis gang.
Members of the Dais gang live near Onapa, which is also only a few miles from the Smith farm in Muskogee county. Jack and Joe Davis, Buck Burdoff and Bob Wirthman are now under two and three year sentences I the federal court for robbing the Katy Limited a few miles south of Onapa here years ago.
It is loudly whispered that these boys will never serve their sentences even if the circuit court affirms them. They are now out on appeal bonds. Only four day's before the Katy robbery Joe Davis, Burdoff, Wirthman and the Smith boys were seen together. Since the robbery none has been seen.

The Oklahoma Leader
November 11, 1915

A. T. Hopkins was murdered by robbers early Sunday in his office at Lawton. He was a large horse dealer and always had money about his person and had drawn a large sum late Saturday for use early Monday morning. Said Col. Hornaday of this city, an old time friend.
"Al Hopkins was a pioneer in Oklahoma and a co-worker with Heck Thomas and Chris Madsen and well known in Guthrie. He was a nervy officer, hard fighter, but an honorable enemy, respected alike by friend and foe. His later career was varied with several accusations of violations of prohibitory and gambling laws, but he had a big heart in his big body. With some faults he was an energetic town builder and public spirited citizen, free hearted to a fault never turning down an appeal for personal or financial aid to friend or foe when he heard an honest, candid appeal. He was quite wealthy and leaves a son in Oklahoma City and a daughter at Medford. His untimely death will be deeply regretted by all old time pioneers of Oklahoma."

The Oklahoma Leader
December 30, 1915

Wichita, Kan., Dec. 29-He walked into the Eaton Hotel this morning as dapperly as if he were a salesman for the corset company. And yet there was something about him that suggested the plains. He was "Bill" Tilghman, frontiersman, dead shot, and buffalo hunter town marshal and outlaw exterminator.
"Bill's" sixty-two years rest lightly upon his shoulders. He is as erect as he was more than forty years ago when he "regulated" Dodge City. He scarcely has a wrinkle hanging about his keen eyes. His hair is a little white but one can hardly distinguish it from blond.
Forty-five years ago he struck Wichita and went out towards the Cowskin to kill buffaloes and got a plenty of them. He had been in Kansas since 1856 but that was the first time he was down this way and there were some seven or eight shacks in the town. He went from here to Dodge City where he was city marshal and sheriff and remained there until he went to Lincoln County, Oklahoma at the first opening.
From that day until this he has been on the trail of criminals commencing his larger career against outlaws twenty-two years ago with Untied States Marshal Ed Nix.
He Fought Fierce Gangs
These were the days that tried men's nerve, for old timers will remember the fierce gangs that terrorized the "New Country" and made the railway and express companies sweat blood. They were the days of the Daltons and the Doolins and Zip Wyatt and Arkansas Tom and Bill Powers and Dick Broadwell and the rest of them clear down to Henry Starr who robbed the Bank of Stroud early this year.
His compatriots were Heck Thomas, Chris Madsen, Bud Ledbetter and others, some of whom have long since bitten the dust in the outlaw hunting game. He had been picked out for United States marshal of the Panama Canal Zone and would have got it were it not for the fact that a governorship was created there with General Goethals and what might be called a military staff I charge.
Mr. Tilghman is here with six reels of moving pictures illustrating the passing of the outlaw from Oklahoma. It is a two-hour stunt that is universally indorsed by the good people of Oklahoma, including the ministerial association and Justice Kane
How it came to be that he is now a showman is like this:
Jennings' Show Hurt State
Al Jennings got up a picture show pretending to represent the outlawry of Oklahoma. It was hurting the new state and creating a bad impression. It was suggested by Ed. Nix, a well known business man of Oklahoma City and who was the First United State marshal of Oklahoma, that a six reel play be arranged which, while showing the tragic occurrences of the day, would contain a lesson that would have a great moral influence over crime. And so they got together-Bill and Nix and Ledbetter and Chris Madsen and went at it in Oklahoma, using the real heroes and actors so far as they could be found and filing in the absent ones so nearly like the originals that the substitution is perfect. He is now showing the reels at the Crawford this afternoon and night and tomorrow afternoon and night, in Denver the play had a wonderful run.
Regret of His Life
"The regret of my life," said Mr. Tilghman today, "is that I did not try to domesticate the buffalo instead of killing him off. Right here in Sedgwick County I have seen hundreds of buffalo calves that could have easily been tamed. I have killed altogether approximately 12,000 buffaloes in my time. Now, when it is too late, I am sorry that I did not tame them instead."
Mr. Tilghman never killed a man in his life if he could avoid it, and at one time took his own lie in his hand to save the life of a ban man who once did him a similar service.

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